Major Pest of Coffee
COFFEE BERRY BORER
Scientific name: (Hypothenemus hampei)
Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) or the coffee berry borer, has been recognized as the most important coffee growing pest in the world (Jaramillo et al., 2006). This minute beetle is native to Africa . With the exception of Hawaii, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea, the coffee berry borer can now be found throughout every coffee-producing region. The damage on the coffee products happens when the female bore holes in the coffee berry and eventually into the coffee beans where she makes galleries for reproduction, it is then followed by the larvae nourishing on the coffee endosperm. Furthermore, the yield loss assessment performed in different coffee growing regions on the southwestern part of Ethiopia showed a 60-73 percent yield loss due to the coffee berry borer infestation. Thus, Ethiopia’s rapid population growth and spread of CBB have been directly associated to rising temperatures in recent years.
CBB takes 28-34 days to complete its life cycle. There are various reports on life expectancy of CBB; female lives for an average of 157 days and males may live for about 20-87 days. Its life stages comprise of egg, larva, pupa and adult and the female lays 31 to 119 eggs within a berry of right ripeness. The immature stages last for an average four days for eggs, Fifteen days for larvae and seven days for pupa, respectively, at 27 degrees Celsius.